Trichiasis - bending the eyelashes inward, towards the eyeball, which as a result causes mechanical damage to the conjunctiva or cornea. The disease is accompanied by a feeling of discomfort, in severe cases, corneal ulceration appears.
Trichiasis can be:
- • Idiopathic, with an unidentified cause.
- • caused by chronic blepharitis.
- • cicatricial - developed as a result of trauma, eye scarring pemphigoid, surgical intervention, trachoma, etc.
In addition, the cause of this disease can be inflammation of the eyelid, changed the direction of eyelash growth, cicatrical changes in the conjunctiva, which provoke the turn of the century inward, as well as entropion, always accompanied by trichiasis.
With trichiasis, the eyelashes are directed inward, in contact with the eyeball, which causes irritation and erosion of the cornea, with symptoms such as blepharospasm and photophobia. The frequent blinking and blinking of this disease only provokes damage to the cornea.
With madarose, there is a local or widespread absence of ciliary hair along the edge of the eyelid.
With dystichiasis in the additional series, the eyelashes are thin and short, they are directed in different directions, they contact the eyeball. The ciliated hair is almost not pigmented at all, so even when eyelashes are viewed with a slit lamp, they can not always be detected if the increase is not large enough.
Diagnosis of trichiasis
Diagnosis of trichiace begins with the collection of anamnesis, which takes into account the presence of genetic predisposition to the disease, trauma, burns, chronic inflammation of the eyes.
Then follows a physical examination, including the determination of visual acuity; External inspection; Biomicroscopy of the state of the edges of the eyelids and the direction of the growth of the eyelashes, as well as the contact of the eyelashes with the conjunctiva and the cornea, the condition of the cornea; Biomicroscopy of the cornea and conjunctiva, through the use of dyes.
Trichiasis must be differentiated with dystichiasis and eyelid twisting. Madaroz must be differentiated from the marginal colobolism of the eyelids.
The goal of treating trichiasis is the prevention of corneal pathologies and the correction of cosmetic deficiency in madarose.
The main method of treatment - surgery, which eliminates the incorrect growth of eyelashes. This can be achieved in several ways:
- 1. Epilation is a common but inadequate method, because prolonged epilation, performed almost monthly, thins out eyelashes, which lose pigment and then are more difficult to give in to other methods of treatment.
- 2. Diathermocoagulation is suitable only for the removal of individual eyelashes. Performed by a needle electrode along the growth of the eyelash down to its bulb. Diathermocoagulation of a number of eyelashes is inexpedient. With distichiasis, diathermocoagulation of the remaining individual eyelashes is performed several months after complete resection of the edge of the eyelid.
- 3. Argon-laser coagulation is indicated in the presence of separate eyelashes that have irregular growth. It is performed from the place of hair release to the skin or mucous membrane and is carried out in the direction of its growth. After the procedure, antiseptic ointments and drops are prescribed.
However, the most effective method for trichiasis with a large area of abnormal eyelash growth is the through resection of the edge of the eyelid, including direct approach of the edges and careful layer-by-layer suturing. Also, sometimes the reconstruction of the posterior edge of the eyelid is shown by transplanting the mucosal flap from the patient's lip.
With complete madarose, a flap can be transplanted. With dysthiasis, a resection of the area with a number of additional eyelashes and subsequent suturing is indicated. In the future, in the presence of separate, newly grown eyelashes, diathermocoagulation or argon-laser coagulation may be prescribed.
Prophylaxis of trichiasis
Prevention of the disease consists in the timely and proper treatment of chronic inflammatory processes, trachoma and eyelid burns, and with surgical intervention - in the careful adaptation of the edges of the wound.
Having discovered suspicious symptoms, it is necessary to show the patient as soon as possible to the doctor in order to make the correct diagnosis, prescribe adequate treatment and avoid the development of complications, which will be much more difficult to treat.
Choosing a clinic for the treatment of trichiasis, you should pay attention to the possibility of a clinic to provide timely and complete diagnosis and the most modern and effective methods of therapy. Pay attention to the level of equipment of the clinic and the qualifications of the specialists working in it, as it is the attention and experience of the doctors of the clinic that make it possible to achieve the best result in the treatment of eye diseases.